Fusion 2003 - Special session SS8

(As
available on Feb 15th, 2003)

Fusion of conflictual information :

**Plausible,
paradoxical and neutrosophical reasoning.**

** **

**Organizers :
**

Jean Dezert (Onera, France) and Florentin Smarandache
(Univ. of New Mexico, USA)

**Contacts :
**Jean.Dezert@onera.fr,
smarand@unm.edu

**Date **: July 8-11, 2003

**Location **: Radisson hotel, Cairns, Australia

**Web site** : http://www.fusion2003.org

** **

**Email addresses of participants :**

** **

tchamova@bas.bg,signal@bas.bg,
john.j.sudano@lmco.com, Hongyan.Sun@rmc.ca,

Laurence.Hubert@Uhb.Fr, gregoire.mercier@enst-bretagne.fr,
samuel.corgne@Uhb.Fr,

mohammadkhosh@yahoo.com, __liufeng49@sina.com, jebrenner@compuserve.com, __

Patrick.Vannoorenberghe@univ-rouen.fr,
milan.daniel@becherovka.cz, ajosang@dstc.edu.au, Jean.Dezert@onera.fr, smarand@unm.edu, Farooq@rmc.ca

** **

__List
of papers (the order is subject to change) :__

1 - Jean Dezert, Onera, France ;

Florentin Smarandache, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ of New
Mexico, USA.

**Title** : **"On the Generation of Hyper-powersets for the
DSmT"**

**Abstract** : The
recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning (DSmT) developped by the
authors appears to be a nice promising theoretical tools to solve many
information fusion problems where a strong internal conflict between sources
arise. The main idea of DSmT is to work on the hyper-powerset of the frame of
discernment of the problem under consideration. Although the definition of
hyper-powerset is well established, the major difficulty in practice is to
generate such hyper-powerset in order to implement DSMT Fusion rule on
computers. We propose in this paper an efficient algorithm for generating
hyper-powersets and discuss the limitations of our computers to generate such
sets when the dimension of the problem increases.

2 - Jean Dezert, Onera, France ;

Florentin Smarandache, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ of New
Mexico, USA.

**Title** : **"Partial
Ordering of Hyper-powerset and Matrix Representation of Belief Function within
DSmT Framework"**

**Abstract** : In this paper we define a partial order on the
hyper-power set of generlized frame of discernement and show how such partial
order can help to obtain an easy an elegant representation of the relationship
(linear transformation through unimodular triangular binary matrix) between the
generalized mass function and belief functions in the DSmT framework. This
representation is useful for
implementation of the combination rule of the DSmT and information fusion problems
where strong internal conflict and paradoxes arise.

3 - Samuel Corgne, Laurence Hubert-Moy, CNRS Costel Lab,
Rennes, France;

Jean Dezert, Onera, France;

Grégoire Mercier, ENST Bretagne, France.

**Title** : **Land Cover Change Prediction with a New Theory of
Plausible and Paradoxical Reasoning**

**Abstract** : In intensive agricultural regions, land cover
during winter has an important impact on the water quality, and the
identification and monitoring of vegetation covering dynamics at high spatial
scales constitute a prior approach for the restoration of water resources. The
spatial prediction modeling of land cover at the field scale in winter that
appears useful for land management and helping local decision making, is
specially complex because of the high variability of the factors that motivate
the land cover changes between each winter. Thus, uncertainty in the data and
the results has to be integrated in the modelling process for better decision
making. Dempster's fusion rule has been used in a preceding study to spatially
predict the location of bare winter fields for the next season on a watershed
located in an intensive agricultural region. The data integrated in the model
come from different sources : remote sensing, expert knowledge and alphanumeric
data. They statistically express the driven factors that motivate land cover
changes : the past-observed bare soils, field size, distance from farm
buildings and agro-environmental actions. Identified factors which support the
hypothesis "bare soils" and "covered soils" are transformed
through fuzzy membership functions into mass function maps before being fused
using the Dempster's rule. The model well predicts the presence of bare soils
on 4/5 of the total area, but clearly presents some limits in generating errors
in land cover assignment when the level of conflict, between the sources of
evidence that support the hypothesis, becomes important.To solve this problem,
we applied the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), which can be considered as a
generalization of the Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST). In this new theory, the
rule of combination takes into account both uncertain and paradoxical
information. This method offers a specific framework because unlike the DST,
the frame of discernment is exhaustive but not necessarily exclusive. Thus, any
source of information that can be rational, uncertain or paradoxical can be
combined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of DSmT in
managing conflicts between sources which support the hypothesis defined here to
predict land cover vegetation presence in the fields. The framework is set up
with the dealing of paradoxical information for the four sources of evidence,
through an hyper-power set created with union and intersection operators. The
fusion process applied is justified from the maximum entropy principle and
decision making relies on a pignistic probability function. Results are
presented and compared with the results drawn from the classical
Dempster-Shafer theory.We point out that higher levels of well predicted fields
are achieved for both assignment classes "bare soils" and
"covered soils". Furthermore, the conflict management between the
sources of evidence allows to spatially represent fields where the conflict is
the strongest and to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that
motivate land cover changes. Finally, the fusion process lead to relevant
results to make a decision for the issue of bare soils reduction in
agricultural intensive regions.Through this first application of the
Dezert-Smarandache Theory, we show an example of this new approach ability to
solve practical problems where the Dempster-Shafer usually fails.

4 - Mohammad Khoshevisan, School of Accounting and Finance,
Griffith Univ. Australia ;

Sukanto Bhattacharya, School of Information and Technology,
Bond University, Australia.

**Title** **:"Information Fusion Based on Neutrosophic
Logic to Reconcile Between Theoretical and Market Prices of Long-term Options
Separated by Mass Cognitive Dissonance"**

**Abstract** : In this paper we basically make two propositions
- firstly a non-linear feedback process that is primarily fueled by mass
cognitive dissonance could generate systematic deviations between the
theoretical and market prices of long-term options, and secondly such
deviations are best reconciled in terms of neutrosophic rather than rule-based
reasoning, especially in the context of the users of automated trading systems
designed to generate trading signals often based on analysis of information
from conflicting sources.

5 - Feng Liu, Associate Professor, School of Information,
(xinxi xueyuan) Xi'an University of Finance and Economics, (Xi'an caijing
xueyuan) No.44 Cuihua Nan Road, (cuihua nanlu 44 hao) Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061,
P. R. China

**Title** **:" Toward Excitation and Inhibition in
Neutrosophic Logic - A multiagent**

**Model
Based on Ying-Yang Philosophy"**

**Abstract**: Logic should have been
defined as the unity of contradictions between logic director and logic
implementation. Chinese Daoism asserts that everything is defined in the unity
of opposites, namely yin and yang, accordingly yang conducts change and yin
brings it up (I-ching, also known as Book of Changes). In this way logic is
redefined in an indeterminate style to facilitate both <A> and
<Anti-A> in neutrosophic logic. The unity of opposites is also described
as neutrality in neutrosophy. An intermediate multi-referential model of
excitation and inhibition is developed to derive a multiagent architecture of
logic, based on Chinese yin-yang philosophy. This methodology of
excitation/inhibition suggests a rhymed way of logic, leading to a dynamic
methodology of weight strategy that links logic with neural network approach.
It also confirms the crucial role of indeterminacy in logic as a fatal
criticism to classical mathematics and current basis of science.

6 - Feng Liu, Associate Professor, School of Information,
(xinxi xueyuan) Xi'an University of Finance and Economics, (Xi'an caijing
xueyuan) No.44 Cuihua Nan Road, (cuihua nanlu 44 hao) Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061,
P. R. China

**Title** **:"Truth and Absolute Truth in Neutrosophic
Logic"**

**Abstract**: As a philosophical
analysis of some fatal paradoxes, the paper distinguishes the conceptual
difference between representation of truth and source of truth, and leads to
the conclusion that in order to acquire the genuine source of truth,
independently of specific representations possibly belonging to different
worlds, one is necessary to compromise even to get rid of all the ideas,
logics, conceptions, philosophies and representable knowledge, returning to his
infant nature, as a preliminary step for his cultivation of unconstrained
wisdom. It also carries out some coordinative crucial issues as
natural-doctrine, minded-unwitting, logic-infancy, conception-deconception,
determinacy-indeterminacy. The paper tries to verify the role of neutrosophy
and neutrosophic logic in religious issues and opens a gateway toward the
oriental classics, excavating the lost treasure..

7 - Milan Daniel, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech
Republic ;

Audun Josang, DSTC, Brisbane, Qld 4001, Australia ;

Patrick Vannoorenberghe, PSI FRE 2645 CNRS,Université de
Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan, France.

**Title** : **"Strategies for Handling Conflicting Dogmatic
Beliefs"**

**Abstract**: The combination of possibly conflicting beliefs
andevidence forms an important part of various disciplines of artificial
reasoning. Dogmatic beliefs are expressed by observers when they are certain
about the subject of interest. This paper describesmethods for combining belief
when they are dogmatic.

8 - Joseph E. Brenner, Ph.D., P.O. Box 235, CH-1865 Les
Diablerets, Switzerland

**Title** : **"Stephane Lupasco and Florentin Smarandache:
Conflicting Logics of Contradiction and an Included Middle"**

**Abstract** : Responding to the failure of classical
logic as a foundation for 20th Century science, Stephane Lupasco (1900 - 1988)
developed the principle of dynamic opposition and a logic of the included
middle. Basarab Nicolescu extended this with the principle of resolution of
real contradictions at a higher level of reality. In this logic of existence,
every phenomenon is accompanied by its contradictory one, such that no ideal,
abstract identity is possible, and the classical values of truth and falsity
are replaced by the reciprocally determined values of the actualization and
potentialization of the phenomena themselves. Currently, Florentin
Smarandache‚s neutrosophic logic, as does Lupasco‚s, results in abrogation of
all three axioms of classical logic. Smarandache defines, in addition to truth
and falsity, a third variable indeterminacy. Both logics involve
generalizations of Hegelian dialectics, with different emphasis however, and
attempts to apply them in specific examples lead to conflicting
interpretations. In this paper, we will analyze the sources of these
differences. For example, the logic of Lupasco could be considered as a
„physics‰ in the sense of focus on and description of the real, energetic
interactions in which both physical and mental phenomena are involved in a
ternary relation to which, as Peirce has shown, more complex ones can be
reduced. Smarandache‚s approach focuses on the informational aspects of
propositions and beliefs, and could be considered a mathematical epistemic
logic. Since energy and information must be equivalent, however, work on the
foundational aspects of these emerging approaches promises to yield interesting
results.

9 - John Sudano, Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, NJ, 08057,
USA

**Title** : **Equivalence Between Belief Theories and Naive
Bayesian Fusion for Systems with Independent Evidential Data: Part I, The
Theory**

**Abstract** : The process of fusing multiple independent
sensor measurements, communication link data from other independent systems,
and dynamic data base information is essential to support critical decisions in
a timely way. Many real systems can be mapped to such a process. The
independence of the input evidential data with an equal probable uniform prior
probability distribution (i.e. Naive Bayesian fusion) greatly simplifies the
mathematical techniques used to properly fuse the evidential data. Equivalence
between Belief Fusion and Naive Bayesian is shown for this process. The
equivalence comparison is done in probability space. A title of a 2001
colloquium "Data Fusion & Target ID: Dempster-Shafer & Probability
Theories Holy War" depicts the state of mind of many researchers. The goal
of this paper is to show that large areas from both mathematical camps are
equivalent.

10 - John Sudano, Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, NJ, 08057,
USA

**Title** : **Equivalence Between Belief Theories and Naive
Bayesian Fusion for Systems with Independent Evidential Data: Part II, The
Example**

**Abstract** : The process of fusing multiple independent
sensor measurements, communication link data from other independent systems,
and dynamic data base information is essential to support critical decisions in
a timely way. Many real systems can be mapped to such a process. The
independence of the input evidential data with an equal probable uniform prior
probability distribution (i.e. Naive Bayesian fusion) greatly simplifies the mathematical
techniques used to properly fuse the evidential data. Equivalence between
Belief Fusion and Naive Bayesian is shown for this process. The equivalence
comparison is done in probability space. A title of a 2001 colloquium
"Data Fusion & Target ID: Dempster-Shafer & Probability Theories
Holy War" depicts the state of mind of many researchers. The goal of this
paper is to show that large areas from both mathematical camps are equivalent.

11 - John Sudano, Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, NJ, 08057,
USA

**Title** : **A Generalized Belief
Fusion Algorithm**

**Abstract** : For a given body of belief evidential data, a
processing objective is to glean the most correct knowledge from such data (but
not more). The author introduced a new methodology of combining independent
multi-source beliefs in 2002. This generalized belief fusion algorithm
depending on the probability proportionally weighting functions used is shown
to be equivalent to the Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence, the Modified
Dempster-Shafer (MDS) theory and other fusion methodologies that will converge
faster to correct results. A more computationally friendl representation of the
generalized belief fusion algorithm is given.

12 - Albena Tchamova, CLPP, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
Sofia, Bulgaria ;

Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Central Laboratory for Parallel
Processing, Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences, Bulgaria ;

Jean Dezert, Onera, France.

**Title** : **Tendencies of
Target Behavior Estimation using Dezert-Smarandache Theory**

**Abstract**: The
objective of the paper is to present a new approach for target behavior
tendency estimation, graded as “Approaching”, “Stationary”, “Receding”. It is
developed on the principles of Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and
paradoxical reasoning. The case of two independent sensors is considered in the
paper. They provide amplitude feature measurements, which serve as an evidence
for corresponded decision-making procedures. In some real world situations it
is difficult to finalize these procedures, because of discrepancies in measurements
interpretation. In these cases the decision-making process leads to conflicts,
which cannot be resolved using the well-known methods. The aim of the performed
study is to present and to approve the ability of DSmT to finalize successfully
the decision-making process and to assure awareness about the tendencies of
target behavior in case of discrepancies in measurements interpretation. An
example is provided to illustrate the benefit of the proposed approach
application in comparison of fuzzy logic approach, and its ability to improve
the overall tracking performance.

13 – Mohammad Khoshnevisan, School of Accounting &
Finance, Griffith University, Australia

Sukanto Bhattacharya, School of Information Technology,
Bond University, Australia

**Title **: **Modified Assignment (MASS) Algorithm - A Semi-heuristic Technique of Optimal Plant
Layout Design for Process-focused Systems Using Neutrosophic Statistics**

**Abstract **: In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic
optimization algorithm for designing optimal plant layouts in process-focused
manufacturing/service facilities. Our proposed algorithm marries the well-known
CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) with the
Hungarian assignment algorithm. Being a semi-heuristic search, our algorithm is
likely to be more efficient in terms of computer CPU engagement time as it
tends to converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT
algorithm - a pure heuristic. We also present a numerical illustration of our
algorithm. We also suggest an extension to the problem under study through the
incorporation of principles of neutrosophic statistics.

14
- Hongyan Sun, M. Farooq, Dept. of Electrical &
Computer Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada,
K7K 7B4

**Title** : **Dempster-Shafer Rule on Sensitive Information
Sources**

**Abstract** : This** **paper is concerned with the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) rule on
sensitive information sources. The properties of fusion of D-S rule on
sensitive information sources are obtained. The robustness of fusion of D-S
rule on sensitive information sources is discussed. A number of examples are
included to demonstrate the application of the results in the paper.

15 - Jean Dezert, Onera, France

Florentin Smarandache, Dept of Mathematics, Univ of New
Mexico, USA

Albena Tchamova, CLPP, Bulgarian Acad. of Sciences, Sofia,
Bulgaria

**Title** : **"Entropy-Like Measure to Solve the Blackman's
Data Association Problem"**

**Abstract** : This
paper presents a new general approach to solve the famous Blackman's

Data Association problem based on an Entropy-Like measure
defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-powerset. We will show how
this new measure, coherent with the classical definition of entropy, improves
the separation power of the decision process.

16 - Flavian Vasile, Academy of Economic Science – Faculty of Cybernetics – Computer Science Department, Bucharest, 6 Piata Romana, Romania.

**Title**: “Processes
of Consciousness”.

**Abstract**: This paper presents consciousness as the sum of describable processes,
without limiting it only to verbal understanding. Consciousness is presented as
a buffer space of the unconscious, accessed by any mental decision-taking
processes. Consciousness is composed of sequential outputs of non-conscious
processes that form, as frames in a picture, the impression of our ego
continuity. The functional consequences of this point of view are then further
discussed.